SOLVED the mystery!
Tracked the patent number back to a chuck designed by Walter L Stace circa 1946. The company is still in business Stace-Allen Chuck Co, Indianapolis In.
This id a model 41 Precision Chuck
They are not produced as a manual chuck any more but still currently made as an air operated chuck.
Jaws are machined for a given part size from .3 to 5.5” dia
So if i were gonna turn many of a specific part this chuck would fit the bill. Company says repeatable runout of .0002.