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francist

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Awesome write-ups Tom. Never built a steam engine and maybe never will, but your articles sure are fun to read! Nice job.

-frank
 

mzayd3

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Wow! What a write up this is looking to be! Keep up the good work and thank you for sharing.


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tomw

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Mr. Bredehoft, that is a beautiful looking engine! Thank you for sharing that.

Frank and Mike,

Thank you for your kind comments. I am glad some folks are finding this interesting and/or useful.
 

kvt

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Tomw Question what/how did you make the 2 v blocks that you used to hold the Eccentric hub
 

tomw

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Hi Ken,

The v-blocks are made from aluminum. I squared up a piece of 1/4" aluminum flat stock, then cut it in half. The two bits of aluminum were CA glued together, and both were then milled square. I then mounted my vise on a tilt table, and used a 45° angle gage to set the angle of table. I milled out one side of the blocks, flipped the part, and milled out the other side. In this way, I was pretty sure I had matching vees. They are not ground precision v-blocks, but they seem to work for off-centering small stuff in my 4 jaw chuck.

If that is completely mud as an explanation I can make a crude drawing that might be clarifying. Emphasis on might.

I hope you are enjoying the far more pleasant weather here before you head north.

Cheers,

Tom
 

kvt

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So basically you made a 1/2 in thick piece of alum bar stock, then you made the vblock out of it. I guess I am going to have to make or get me a angle table for my mill. Another item for the list.
 

tomw

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Ken,

I could have tilted the head on the mill to accomplish the same thing.

Tom
 

kvt

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Don't let the other half here you say that, Then she will start questioning if there is another way without having to purchase stuff.
 

tomw

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Ken,

I could have tilted the head on the mill to accomplish the same thing.

Tom
Ken,

I forgot to add: but this would be morally suspect and could lead to leprosy. The safe thing to do is get a tilt table.
 

tomw

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The next step was the crossheads and associated pieces.

The raw stock for the crossheads themselves was a small piece of brass flat stock. For the first step I put the stock flat in my vise and squared up the ends by side cutting with a1/2” end mill. The next step was to drill the hole for the gudgeon pin (wrist pin). The piece was repositioned in the vise, and the end and center found. I then center drilled and drilled the hole in the hopefully correct location. This is a small drill bit, and it needed to go a relatively long distance through the material. I therefore did peck drilling, being sure not to put too much pressure on the bit. In my limited experience, if I use too much force, small bits really want to wander off, take their own path, or just come to a fork and take it.

1 Drilling retaining pin on crosshead.jpg

Center drilling to locate the hole for the gudgeon pin.

The next step was to mill the slot for the small end of the connecting rod. I positioned the piece vertically in my vise, and used the usual methods to find the center. The slot is a tad over 1/8”, so I used a 3/32” end mill. I plunge cut the center of the slot, and then used conventional milling to widen it to .135. The outer profile was then milled, also by plunge cutting and then conventional milling to final size.

2 Milling slot.jpg

Milling the connecting rod slot to final size with a 3/32 end mill.

3 Finishing the milling.jpg

Milling the outer relief on the crosshead using a tiny end mill.

The piston rod screws directly into the crosshead. As this is a through-hole, I drilled it next. Again, a skinny drill bit, so lots of pecking at the maximum spindle speed (2800 rpm). As the piece has not been cut-off from the stock, I only drilled down far enough to make sure it would clear the full height of the piece.

4 Drilling for the piston rod.jpg

Drilling the hole that the piston rod will screw into. Or, into which the piston rod will be screwed.

Next the step was cutting the crosshead from the stock. I used a .062 kerf-width slitting saw. I took multiple passes with the saw, each .050 deeper, until the piece separated from the stock. I used lots of lube as well. Because the brass was kinda gummy, the blade would grab if I tried a deeper cut. I then 5-40 tapped the through-hole for the piston rod. All edges were then deburred and given a little smoothing with some 400 grit aOx (aluminum oxide) paper.

5 Cutting off a crosshead.jpg

Cutting off the crosshead using a slitting saw.

Are these posts too detailed and thus a bit boring?

6 Crossheads finished.jpg

The crossheads.

The next pieces that I did were the crosshead caps. These come as bronze castings.

7 Crosshead cap castings.jpg

Crosshead cap castings as received.

The first step was to remove the sprue and flashing from each piece. I did this with a combination of my belt sander and files. Then I sanded the bottoms of the caps using 320 grit aOx paper. As with the base, I did this gently, using a figure eight pattern for the motion of the part over the paper. I sanded until I guesstimated the contact area was around 80-90%. I could have kept going, but I was really bored, and that seemed sufficient in my mind. Please tell me if I am wrong.

8 Sanding caps.jpg

Sanding the bottom of the crosshead caps to make a smooth and flat surface.

9 90 percent contact on caps.jpg

These were sanded until between 80-90% of the piece came into contact with the sandpaper.

The castings were then mounted on parellels in my mill vise (which was set square to the table).

10 Cap castings in vise.jpg

Casting mounted in my vise.

There are three holes that needed to be drilled in the castings. On each end are the clearance holes for the 5-40 machine screws that mount the casting to the base. In the center there is a small oil port where I will mount an oil cup. The critical distance is between the two holes used for mounting them to the base. I used my eyes and a center drill to find the middle of the middle, or the center of the center. I then checked that the center of the center drill followed the rib down the center of the piece along the X axis. Because this is central and needs to be centered. Once I was certain the center was centered, I set my DRO to 0,0 and drilled the central hole for the oiler using a center drill followed by the correct sized twist drill.

IMGP0006.jpg

Imagine, if you will, a photo here of me drilling a centrally located central hole, and that this is the caption for the photo.

I then used some centering math and the DRO to find the central location for the mounting screw clearance holes. I center drilled at these points and then used a 9/64 twist drill to finish them off. And here is where I ran into trouble.

She was a sexy red head with a whiskey voice, the kind girl you would apologize to when she rams your car. And here I was, fresh out PI school, wet behind the ears, and hungry for action. Oh, I should have known better than to take her case….Oops, back to the narrative.

My 9/64 bit really wanted to dive into the casting and rip it from the vise. In deedly-do, it did that on the first piece. For all subsequent holes, I first drilled a 5/64 pilot hole, followed by the 9/64 bit. This approach worked for me. A better approach, so I hear, it to modify your bit so it is not so grabby. Of course, then the bit is only good for grabby metals.

12 pilot drilling cap mount point.jpg

After the hole was started with a center drill, a 5/64 twist drill was used to make a through-hole.

13 Finishing cap mount points.jpg

This was then followed by a 9/64 drill.

14 Crosshead caps finished.jpg

The crosshead caps finished. Note that I left the top of bosses for the mounting screws un-machined.

Spacers. They occupy that region between Mars and Jupiter, mining vital minerals for the expansion of our industrial efforts. Oh, wait.

The last bit for this post is making the crosshead cap spacers. These little hollow tubes, of a specific length, set the distance between the crosshead rails and the crosshead caps. I started with some 3/16” model pipe (as recommend by Dean). Using the lathe I drilled out the pipe to 1/8” diameter and then parted off appropriately long bits. These bits were then de-burred by putting them back in the chuck and using my 45° countersink deburring tool. Easy.

15 Drilling 3-16 tubing for crosshead spacers.jpg

Drilling out 3/16" model pipe to 1/8" I.D.

16 cutting off spacers.jpg

Parting off the crosshead spacers.

17 The spacers before deburring.jpg

A passel of crosshead spacers, waiting to be de-burred.

Next time there should be a picture of the engine assembly as it stands.

Your humble correspondent,

Tom
 
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jumps4

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nice work and write up I like the black and white photos
It adds a feel of nostalgia
Steve
 

kvt

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Nice work on the cross heads and the cross head slides, I did get my slides done, Then have been to busy to do many things, Did get my now z axis in and installed What a difference the extra inches make. Now I just have to tram it, so I can use it. But will have to wait a week or so. As I have a trip to Ohio starting tomorrow. You are going to be finished before I get the base finished. at this rate.
 

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Jumps4, thank you for the nice comments. The primary reason for the B & W photos is to reduce their file size without reducing clarity. Color takes up lots of bits. But, I also like the look.

Ken, congrats on getting the taller column. It really does make a word of difference. Not only can you do taller set-ups, but you can use a co-axial indicator. Have fun in OH.

Cheers,

Tom
 

tomw

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Today's post will be short and about the drive, or crank, shaft.

The first order of business was trimming the shaft to the correct length. The 1/4" round stock provided was only 60 thou or so over, so I just faced it off in my lathe and put on a bit of chamfer.

Next was machining the flats. There are two flats on each end of the shaft. They are placed 90° from each other. In other words, when you machine the second flat, you have to rotate the shaft 90°, or half a pie. Mmm, pie...Anyway, upon these flats ride the grub screws that secure the crank throws.

To accomplish this, I used a set of two v-blocks and my vise. First I used one v-block, with the shaft clamped using the outer clamp position on the block. This was placed in the vise with the block positioned so the shaft was against the fixed jaw of the vise and the v-block clamp was beyond the edge of the vise. I then machined the flat to the specified dimensions.

18 Milling crankshaft flat.jpg

Milling the flat on the crankshaft. Note the v-block clamp extending just beyond the fixed jaw of the vise.

I then released the v-block from the vise and rotated 90° so the v-block now faced up. I left the shaft clamped in the v-block this entire time. A matching v-block and block camp was now added to the set up to support the end of shaft that needed machining, and the whole set-up was re-clamped in the vise. The flat was then machined.

19 Milling the other crank flat at 90.jpg

Here I have added another v-block (part of a matching set) and am milling the other flat.

This process now seems really obvious. Unfortunately, it was only obvious in hindsight. I spent much time pondering (in the shower, while cooking, petting my weasel, etc.) how I was going to accomplish the 90° indexed rotation. I had ideas about using my rotary table and collet blocks, or making various jigs. And it was while pondering the rotary table option and how I would support this long shaft poking out that I pulled out my v-blocks. And like lightening on golf course it hit me. Riiiight, v-blocks are perfectly square!

Thus I admit to all and sundry what a flipping dunderhead I am.

20 Crank done.jpg

The final product of much mulling and a tiny bit of milling.

Finally, we have the machine to date:

21 Engine so far.jpg

Cheers,

Tom​
 
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tomw

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Another short-ish post. This time I made a few rods.

The first rods to make were the stainless steel piston rods. I had not yet machined SS. I don't know the grade of SS provided. I do know that is was harder to machine than CRS.

I used my carbide insert tools to turn the small end of the piston rod to the correct diameter and for the correct distance. My first few cuts were "big" at .01. My last few cuts were clearance cuts taken without changing the cross slide position. In between were some .002 cuts. Eventually I got the diameter needed for the 3-48 thread.

1 turning the small end of piston rod.jpg

Using my carbide insert tool to machine a stainless steel stock for the piston rod.

I then threaded this with a 3-48 threading die and my die holder. I could do this threading under power, because my lathe is powered by a 90V DC motor with variable speed. This aspect of my lathe is really handy when I have to make a lot of male threaded parts.

2 threading small end of piston rod.jpg

Threading the small end of the piston rod 3-48.

Once the small end was done, the other end was simple threaded using my 5-40 die; no turning was necessary.

3 piston rods done.jpg

The finished piston rods.

The eccentric rods (valve drive rods, valve movers and shakers, etc.) come as brass round stock that requires splitting in two, a bit of shortening, and then threading.

6 eccentric rods.jpg

The finished eccentric rods (valve push rods).

The last bit for now is making a bunch of nuts. The kit provides 3/16" and 1/4" brass hex stock. The nuts are made from the 3/16" hex stock, the 1/4" stock is used for the gland nuts (not done yet). Two of the nuts are 3-48 and the rest are 5-40. So, two nuts worth of hex stock were drilled for a 3-48 tap, tapped, and then cut off to the correct size. Before cutting of my nuts, I would chamfer the exposed side. The rest were were treated likewise but for 5-40 threads.

After I cut off my nuts, I had to clean up the burr left over from the cut off operation. To do this, I mounted each nut back in the three jaw chuck and used a sharp lathe tool to trim off the burr. Then I used a small file to chamfer the edge. Or, I would forget to do the chamfer, remove it from the chuck, realize my mistake, remount it in the chuck and then chamfer the edge. And then realize that I did not remember to chamfer the other side prior to cutting it off from the hex stock, and ......

4 making my nuts.jpg

De-burring my nuts using a very sharp HSS tool bit.

The slowest and most painful part of the process was getting my small nuts into the chuck with my over-sized hands. Otherwise, this all went quite smoothly.

5 nuts and rods.jpg

My nuts and shafts.

Until next time.

Cheers,

Tom
 
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ogberi

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Having made a lot of nuts on my tag lathe, I found that a long bolt or length of threaded rod was the easiest way to put a nut too small to comfortably hold, back into the 3 jaw chuck for finishing.
 

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Nice write up, Tom. I've never worked with casings, they do present some interesting challenges. I'm looking forward to seeing your progress and seeing this engine run.
 
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Hi Tom
When making small nuts for clocks I put a stud in the chuck with a short length of thread showing , and thread the nut onto it up to the chuck jaws, the facing cut keeps the nut tight against the chuck, this is ideal for doing repetitive jobs.
Brian
 

oldntired

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Thanks for the writeup Tom. I have a PM3 kit to build. It is about half of a seven... I'll be studying your work.
 

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My #7 kit arrived today. For those who may be wondering, there aren't any real instructions. Just a good set of raw parts and some really good drawings. The how-to's are up to you.

It looks like a great winter project. At least if I can keep my pea-pickin' paws off it that long. This thread will be a real asset to all who are doing one of these kits.
 

tomw

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Dataporter, Thank you for following along. I am glad the log has been interesting to date.

Ogler and Brian, thank you both for following along. I actually used my tap to reposition the nuts in the three jaw. Worked slick. Threading (or tapping for making little bolts) a chunk of round stock is a handy idea for re-chucking tiny fasteners.

Oldntired, I hope you enjoy that build. The PMR #3 was my first model after I got my machines. I couldn't make it run until after a did a few more! I think it is a nice model. I ended up naming the Minor Mishap Steam Engine, in honor of the band my wife belongs to, the Minor Mishap Marching Band.

Hawkeye, I hope I don't lead you astray! Have fun with it, and anything I can do to help along the way let me know. Given I have been machining stuff for only 10 months, it is unlikely I can help you more than you can help yourself!

Thank you to all who have been following along. Your wisdom, encouragement, and gentle constructive criticism have been great. Coming from the world of academic science, I have been pleasantly surprised by the gentleness of the constructive criticism.

Again, thanks tons.

Cheers,

Tom

p.s. The whole small nuts and big hands thing...You know what they say about guys with small nuts..Big gloves. Oh, no, it's big hands and small...Ah, whatever; not to be taken too literally, figuratively, or metaphorically.
 
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Sandia

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Tom this is a little off topic, but I like the Packard in your avatar. I am kind of an old car guy as well.
 

Hawkeye

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What I mean, Tom, is that there are many ways to do any given machining task. Having someone doing the same, or similar, project ahead of you suggests ways of doing things. The individual may choose to do it the same way, or it my cause you to think of a slightly different method. In any case, the write-up will be very helpful.

Besides, I've been out of my shop for a year. Any reminders I can get are worth reading.
 

tomw

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Bob,

I am not very familiar with trucks. What is that in your avatar.

My avatar is my wife's 38 Packard coupe. She and I bought it for her birthday. Much of the restoration was done at a local shop. They were very open to my being there and participating, which was great (really great since they know cars but I know Packards). My wife and I, and the shop, restored the car to as close to original as we could. As far as I can tell, the interior was already original.

It was a fun project and got me thinking about expanding my skills to machining.

Here is a better view of the entire car:

2011-10-26 13.40.14.jpg


And the first award she won:

2012-05-27 15.10.03.jpg



My wife drives the car all over the place, and really loves it.

Cheers,

Tom
 

tomw

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What I mean, Tom, is that there are many ways to do any given machining task. Having someone doing the same, or similar, project ahead of you suggests ways of doing things. The individual may choose to do it the same way, or it my cause you to think of a slightly different method. In any case, the write-up will be very helpful.

Besides, I've been out of my shop for a year. Any reminders I can get are worth reading.
Hawkeye,

Of course. I really do hope this log is helpful, to you and to others. Thank you again for following along.

Tom
 

T Bredehoft

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Are these posts too detailed and thus a bit boring?
We live for details like you supply. Keep it up.

I must add: I really enjoy the random non-shop-specific text. Also, your sense of humor.
 
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tomw

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Time for another update. This should be one of a few or less on the cylinder castings.

1) Cylinder drawing.jpg

The drawings for the right cylinder. The left is a mirror image of this.

I call these the cylinder castings, but really they are the cylinders and steam chest/valve housings combined. They are cast bronze.

2 cylinder castings.jpg

The cylinder castings along with my first cylinder sizing gauge. I ended up having to make one a wee bit bigger.

The first step was to file off the excess flash. I then clamped the casting in a three jaw chuck. These castings seem to have been intentionally designed to make it possible to use a three jaw chuck and have the bore core-hole relatively closely centered on the spindle. I checked to make sure nothing was completely cockeyed by running the lathe and looking down the core hole. If the hole didn't describe the orbit of pluto, and the piece remained firmly gripped, I was happy to proceed.

3 Cylinder casting in three jaw chuck.jpg

The cylinder casting mounted in the 3-jaw chuck and ready for some facing excitement.

I faced one side until I had a completely flat surface (essentially removing the casting draft plus a bit). I then flipped the casting in the chuck and faced the other side the same amount as on the first side. I then removed the casting, measured it's length, and calculated how much I need to take off from each end to bring things to tolerance. I then re-chucked the casting, removed said amount, flipped it around, and removed said amount again. Thus the length of the casting has been established with the intake boss nicely centered between the two end. This is way more work than necessary.

4 Initial facing of the cylinder casting.jpg

Both ends of the cylinder casting have been faced and the cylinder is approaching final length.

This next bit is important: The side that you last faced before the boring operation is the side that will be mounted on the base. This is because the mounting surface and the bore need to be as close to perpendicular as possible. Thus, the cylinder casting operations described above need to be done such that the intake boss will be up when mounted to the base. In other words, the cylinder castings are mirror images of each other.

Anyway, I next bored the cylinder to size-ish. I don't have a 1/2" gauge pin, so I made one. And then I ended up over-boring by .010 on the first cylinder because I'm easily oooh, squirrel. So I made a gauge pin slash future jig bit for the second cylinder and bored to that size. That one came out with the same degree of wrongness as the first.

6 Boring the cylinder casting.jpg

Boring

7 close up of cylinder boring.jpg

Boring

9 main bores bored.jpg

Bored

Next post will be on getting the valve stuff drilled.

Cheers,

Tom 5 faced casting.jpg
 

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The next step taken was drilling the valve chamber. I took a really complicated route to doing this, which I am going to skip over, and give you the simplified version.

Because of the operation I did in the last post, I have specified which casting is my left versus right cylinders. When mounted to the base, the right casting will have the inlet port towards the left and facing up. For the other cylinder, it is just the opposite. So, I marked the face of the castings that would be against the base. It is from these faces that I will drill the valve bores. Basically the orientation of the cylinder casting needs to match the drawings when drilling these holes. Otherwise one cylinder will be great, but the other will have the inlet ports either on the wrong side of the assembly, or facing down.

If you are stuck in quicksand, digging deeper won't help.

The hole for the valve needs to be 3/4" from the center of the cylinder bore, and in the middle of the conical casting. The first thing I did was put a scribe line on the casting that bisected the conical portion. I did this in the same way I bisected the crank throw, by scale, eye and several punch marks. I then had a casting with a scribed line upon which the valve bore would be drilled.

Still digging...

1 steam valve set up.jpg


For some reason, I felt I need to mount the cylinder on a square piece of aluminum stock, and then securing that in my machine vise jaws. I am certain this is unnecessary. The basic operation required is indicating the center of the cylinder bore to the spindle, and then indicating the 3/4" distance along the scribed line to the center of the valve bore. Regardless, the point for the valve bore center was found, center drilled, and then drilled through 5/32". As in previous episodes, this sorta long but small diameter hole was drilled carefully so the drill wouldn't go all wonky. Then the hole was drilled and then reamed 1/4" to a depth of 1", leaving the remaining 1/8" of material with a 5/32" drilled hole. This will later be tapped for the exhaust pipe.

Just a little deeper...

2 drilling the major diameter of steam valve.jpg

This process was then repeated for the other cylinder, but with the inlet port boss oriented in the opposite direction.

3 Steam valves drilled.jpg


The next step was drilling the inlet ports/passages. I will describe those in the next post. I'm tired after writing all those words. Words that convey stuff, but perhaps no more. Ugh.

I delayed doing the machining of these cylinders because I felt they would be difficult. Then I delayed posting about them because it was going to be hard to explain. The machining was easier.

Have a great weekend.

Cheers,

Tom
 

tomw

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OK, after thinking for many hours about the cylinders, and the previous post, I realized there is an easier way to do this. If you have a small chuck machine (Sherline, Taig, small Grizzly, etc) you can do the boring, then immediately go to the mill with the part still in the chuck. Mount the chuck with the part in on the mill, find the center of the bore, and off you go. The one important change would be to mount the cylinder casting in the chuck with a small spacer so you don't end up drilling into your chuck.

Again, I apologize for my confused narrative in the post above. If anyone needs clearer information, please let me know.

Cheers,

Tom
 

Sandia

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Bob,

I am not very familiar with trucks. What is that in your avatar.

My avatar is my wife's 38 Packard coupe. She and I bought it for her birthday. Much of the restoration was done at a local shop. They were very open to my being there and participating, which was great (really great since they know cars but I know Packards). My wife and I, and the shop, restored the car to as close to original as we could. As far as I can tell, the interior was already original.

It was a fun project and got me thinking about expanding my skills to machining.

Here is a better view of the entire car:

View attachment 112032

And the first award she won:

View attachment 112033


My wife drives the car all over the place, and really loves it.

Cheers,

Tom
Nice looking car Tom, I'm sure your wife enjoys driving it. It caught my eye as a friend of mine from San Antonio has one just like it. The picture in my avatar is a 1940 Ford Deluxe Coupe. Picture attached.
PS: I am building the PM Research Red Wing hit and miss engine. Started last winter, but got side tracked during the summer but I plan to get back to it in the next couple of weeks.

DSC_0153.JPG
 
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